70 North Country Road, Suite 205
Port Jefferson, NY 11777
HVMS@matherhospital.org

Welcome To Diabetes Awareness

You're on your way to better Diabetes control.

Mather Endocrinology is committed to giving our patients individualized, quality care for diabetes, thyroid disorders, cholesterol disorders and hormone imbalances and deficiencies. We draw upon the latest in medical research and technology to provide comprehensive treatment with the goal of improving our patients' quality of life. We look forward to meeting and discussing your health-related concerns about diabetes.

A FEW TIPS . . .
If you decide to schedule an appointment with us here are a few tips. . . When arriving for your appointment, please come 15 minutes early, bring your blood sugar meter, a 3 day food journal and any blood work you may have had done.

Understanding Diabetes

What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a disease that affects how your body controls blood sugar. If you've been diagnosed with diabetes, no matter what type, it means you have too much sugar in your blood.
 
Why do people get diabetes?

Diabetes occurs either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both.

What does insulin do?  
When you eat, your body turns food into glucose, or sugar. Once the glucose enters the blood your pancreas is supposed to release insulin. Insulin works as a "key" to open your cells, allowing the glucose to enter your cells and allow you to use the glucose for energy.  However with diabetes, this system does not work, preventing insulin to work as that "key" causing the sugar to build up in your blood. The result: the body's cells starve from the lack of glucose. 

Who gets diabetes?
Diabetes can occur in anyone. However, people who have close relatives with the disease are more likely to develop it.

Other risk factors include:

  • Obesity/overweight
  • High cholesterol
  • High blood pressure
  • Physical inactivity
  • Age - the risk of developing diabetes increases as people grow older.
  • Ethnicity - Diabetes is more common among Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders.
  • Prior history of gestational diabetes

What type of diabetes do I have?

Type 1 diabetes - occurs when the body does not produce insulin/results from the body's failure to produce insulin. This results when the body's immune system attacks part of its own pancreas. Scientists are not sure why this happens. But the immune system mistakenly sees the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas as foreign, and destroys them. This attack is known as "autoimmune" disease. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes."

Type 2 diabetes - most common form of diabetes. The body does not produce enough insulin for proper function, or the cells in the body do not react to insulin (insulin resistance). There are multiple reasons for this but the primary causes are genetics and lifestyle choices.

Gestational diabetes - when a pregnant woman without a previous history of diabetes develops high blood glucose levels during pregnancy and usually resolves after the baby is delivered. They are more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes later in life.

Prediabetes - when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. This condition puts you at a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes in the future. If controlled, however, it is reversible,  sugar to build up in your blood. The result: the body's cells starve from the lack of glucose. 

What Are The Signs of Diabetes?

What are the signs and symptoms of diabetes?
Below are the most common:

  • Increased thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Increased hunger
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Blurred vision
  • Frequent infections - such as gums, skin and vaginal infections
  • Slow healing of cuts and bruises
  • Numbness and tingling in hands and feet
  • Sexual dysfunction among men

How do I know if I have diabetes?
Diabetes can be diagnosed in one of three different ways:

  • The A1C Test
    Measures your average blood glucose for the past 3 months. The A1C test is a blood test that provides information about a person's average levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar, over the past 3 months. The A1C test is sometimes called the hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, or glycohemoglobin test. For this test, Diabetes is diagnosed at an A1C of greater than or equal to 6.5%.
  • The FPG (Fasting Plasma Glucose) Test
    Normal fasting blood glucose -- or blood sugar -- is between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter or mg/dL for people who do not have diabetes. The standard diagnosis of diabetes is made when two separate blood tests show that your fasting blood glucose level is greater than or equal to 126 mg/dl. For this test, Diabetes is diagnosed at a fasting blood glucose of greater than or equal to 126 mg/dl.
  • The OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance) Test
    A two-hour test that checks your blood glucose levels before and 2 hours after you consumed a sugary drink. For this test, Diabetes is diagnosed at 2 hour blood glucose of greater than or equal to 200 mg/dl.

Please continue to our Diabetes Management Section.

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